I would like to give some information about the threat of disaster posed by sky objects.
Although it rarely happens, the disaster is sometimes very detrimental to human life. Meteors and asteroids can occasionally shoot into the earth’s atmosphere and rain tons of materials onto our environment.
Apart from the fact that volcanoes cooled the earth more than human experience, when many parts of Europe suffered for being deprived of summer (in 1257 and 1815), several astronomical events of nature are seen as endangering the earth’s routine performance. One of the most spectacular events took place during the reign of Louis XIV, when there was a concrete anomaly in the sun’s behavior. The phenomenon supports the view that the sun is not a constant star with its ordinary and recurrent character. Changes of the sun occur in rare episodes.
Humans are also reminded of the fact that a greater scale of extinction happened in the boundary of Cretaceous-Tertiary periods. At that time, 65 million years ago, the extinction of several species transpired in the valley of Yucatan, Mexico. With solid deterministic conviction, the event was caused by the blow of an enormous comet or asteroid.
At present our awareness of the asteroid impact has increased with the incident in Siberia in June 1908. In general, a rocky asteroid explosion in Tunguska occurred along with the production of energy equivalent to 10 megatons of TNT. While the diameter of the rocky asteroid causing fire in Tunguska was estimated at 70 meters, now we are confused by a latest survey of Near-Earth Orbits (NEO).
Among the NEO, there are PHO—potentially hazardous objects. In terms of percentage, the PHO are non-negligible objects that endanger part of the earth surface. Admittedly it will be a rare opportunity to result in large-scale extinction, but many traces in the earth’s geological history indicate that the asteroid impact is not a remote possibility. In 2012, 848 near-earth asteroids (with diameters of over 1 kilometer) were discovered, but only 154 objects belong to the group of potentially hazardous asteroids. With the small number and the fact that over 60 percent of earth land is uninhabited and around 60 percent of the earth surface is covered with water, the chance of destroying centers of humanity is somewhat limited. However, we cannot ignore the ecology of the human system of resources that receives valuable life supporting materials.
Back to the sources of life on earth, as already shown in the era of Louis XIV, we cannot fully disregard the view that the sun has unpredictable behavior. On March 12, 2014, amazing solar flares emerged from the sun (also described in Kompas, November 22, 2015). Space weather scientists intensely follow the changes to see if they can affect the character of the earth’s atmosphere. The flow of solar particles is expected to be able to interact with the atmosphere and strengthen the power of northern lights in the polar region. This is indeed being observed.
But the message to be drawn is that due to its rarity and isolated cases, we should enhance the ethics of climate change and earth circumstances because of the likelihood of cosmic threats. Our climate may suffer from exhaustion due to the many ways of particle charging, internally as well as externally, of our atmosphere. The hazardous effects of global climate change will challenge the process and ethics of our economic advancement.
Bandung, West Java
THERE is a mistake in the article titled Land Dispute in Cakung in Tempo of the November 24-30, 2020 edition. It was mentioned in the article that the head of the Jakarta regional office of the National Land Agency subjected to the sanction was Unu Ibnudin. It should have been Jaya. Unu is now head of the land titles and land registration division of the Jakarta regional land agency office. Our sincere apology for the mistake—Ed.